In this talk we elaborate why the real challenge of global warming lies in the economic and political dimensions of the global collective action that is required to meet this challenge. We will begin with a brief review of different approaches and attitudes to climate action. We will also explain why the principles of equity and climate justice need to be the touchstone of all such approaches and argue for the continuing significance of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as our guide to the future. We also provide a context to the rhetoric of “follow the science”, “ambition,” and “climate emergency” that have recently entered the global discourse on climate change. The talk, in conclusion, will deal with some of the confusions and concerns over India’s climate policy and indicate some inalienable elements of the way forward in India’s role in global climate action.